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Journal section "Life quality and human potential of territories"

Long-Distance Commuting as a Kind of Otkhodnichestvo: Scale, Causes and Effects

Korolenko A.V.

Volume 27, Issue 6, 2023

Korolenko A.V. (2023). long-distance commuting as a kind of otkhodnichestvo: Scale, causes and effects. Problems of Territory's Development, 27 (6), 191–212. DOI: 10.15838/ptd.2023.6.128.12

DOI: 10.15838/ptd.2023.6.128.12

Abstract   |   Authors   |   References
In recent decades, shift labor migration – a form of temporary return short-term and regular labor migration (new type of otkhodnichestvo) – has become widespread. The aim of the research is to assess its scale and regional differentiation in Russia, as well as to systematize ideas about its causes and effects. The information base is the results of the All-Russian Population Census – 2020 and scientific publications on the subject. We have found that 2% of the employed population of Russia (22% of those working outside the settlement) are long-distance commuting migrants. Among them there are significantly more men, rural residents and those traveling to other regions. Subjects with different levels of socio-economic development have the largest share of shift workers: medium-developed industrial (Republic of Mordovia, Volgograd, Omsk oblasts), more agrarian (Saratov Oblast), underdeveloped (Chukotka Autonomous Okrug, Magadan Oblast), underdeveloped and underdeveloped (Republic of Kalmykia), rich oil and gas producing (Yamalo-Nenets and Khanty-Mansi autonomous okrugs), relatively developed and ahead of income (Republic of Bashkortostan). The lowest indicator is typical for regions that are centers of attraction for migrants (Moscow; Moscow, Leningrad and Kaliningrad oblasts), as well as for the republics of the North Caucasus and the South of Russia. The most significant reasons for involvement in long-distance commuting are objective push factors (low wages and lack of jobs in the place of residence). Positive socio-economic effects of long-distance commuting at the meso- and macro-level consist in the redistribution of resources between regions, reduction of costs for the creation and maintenance of settlements, improvement of living standards, reduction of social tension, development of the health care system; at the micro-level – in the adaptation of enterprises to the conditions of changing demand, effective organization of their activities, improvement of material and housing conditions of long-distance commuting workers and their families. Negative effects are manifested mainly at the micro level – in the socio-psychological impact on the long-distance commuting worker (deviant behavior, deterioration of health) and their family (problems in family relations, management of household and social affairs, children upbringing)


regional differentiation, otkhodnichestvo, long-distance commuting, scale, causes, effects

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